Principles of Turning

To get the cylindrical shape, the workpiece moves through the machine around its own axis (turning axis). During the workpiece, it works with the winning tool that is closed against it and to remove it from it. . This way of doing the job is called a “wheel”, and the work requires several different moves.

The various forms of turning parts are achieved through a series of different tasks, and the parts are shaved from outside or inside. In brief, they are:
(Turning out) or turning (inside).
The cylindrical parts are made through a continuous cutting (smooth surfaces), through a shear, cone parts through a cone, and finally, molded parts are made through a molding and screws through a twisting.
In order to solve the problem of turning issues and to be able to toggle different types of work, CNC machines are made of different types. The most commonly used machines are the same as conventional milling or bite cutting. And other important types are the carving machine and the vertical machine or carousel, which also performs drilling operations.

Bird machine:
This device is used to support the long piece of work and, in addition, during hole or welding, the winning tool is mounted by the cone trail that it is mounted on. The birdie machine can be moved to the paddle and tightened at any desired point. To move its inner bar from the bird’s end gear, it is used to keep the front of the front lever fixed.

Desk machine:
It carries all parts and lathe pieces and moves on supports, supports and accessories as well as a birdie on the desk guides. These guides often have a prism shape and may also be flat to cut diamonds The big ones have made a part of the machine table so that it can be removed.

Gearbox for main move:
The work rod during the cutting of the parts must have a different period relative to the working conditions and specifications (round is the number of workpieces per minute). To obtain a different period, a device called the master gear box is usually used Instead, it is located beneath the machine’s bearings. Sometimes a part of the gearbox may be embedded inside the car’s base. By moving the belt and the gear, the number of turns can be changed in the step of the mine (intermediate), for example, from 105 to 151 and 214 rounds per minute. In addition to the gearboxes, it is possible that by their number of rounds Except in the form of a mineral step (intermediate).

Turning tools:
To cut off the cutting tools, they use turning joints and turning brushes. The power of doing things tools is related to the gender and the form of the edge of the winning tool.

Material of turning tools:
The instrumentation shall have the following properties:
Hardness, resistance, hardness resistance to heat and resistance to wear. The tool’s stitch must be hard so that its winning edge can penetrate inside the work, and if it does not have enough resistance, the winning edge breaks apart, and each tool must be somewhat It can withstand the heat generated by its frictional edge by winning it, and maintain its hardness, and it must have a special resistance to wear and tear, so that it does not quickly disappear from work and does not slip.
For turning tools, different sexes are used:
Non-alloy steel: A steel with 0.5 to 1.5% carbon. This steel loses its hardness in the heat of 250 ° C and is therefore not suitable for cutting speeds. In the same way, this steel In exceptional cases, they are only used to make turning joints. Often, steel is referred to as non-alloy tool called carbon steel and as simple as steel tool (ws).
Alloyed steel: steel other than its alloys carbon, including alloys, worms, vanadium, molybdenum and the like. Alloyed castings may also have low and high percentages of their alloys, for example, stearic acid (ss), high alloying percentages And its resistance to erosion is also very high. It keeps its hardness up to 600 ° C. The hardness property of this steel is more than anything else owed to the heat, and due to the same property, it can be operated with very high cutting speeds. Because the price of steel is high, often only the winning part of the tool or sheet You install and weld this steel on a machine-made steel carving body.
Hard metals: The power of doing work greatly increases the tool. The main component of the compound substance is hard metal and lobram or molybdenum. There are also some cobalt and carbon in it. The hard metal is very expensive, and therefore the softened blades are soldered to a winner of constructional steels.
The shearing power of a hard-grinding steel grinding machine is 900 ° C, so it can be used in a very long period of time, and with these properties, the time of working with these steel is shorter, resulting in The cutting speed of the workpiece is very smooth and clean. To perform work on different types of turning operations, it is necessary to use a hard metal type suitable for them.
Grizzly Diamonds: Diamonds are often used instead of the edge of the winning tool, their gender is very hard and their resistance to wear is immensely good. Grab the diamonds, especially for the smoothness of the parts on the car