The application of polymer materials in the automotive industry is also synchronous, and sometimes more than other industries. In the automotive industry, it is worth noting that the reduction in weight due to the replacement of polymer parts rather than metal parts leads to a reduction in fuel consumption, which, in addition to saving Economics is effective in protecting energy and environmental resources. One of the aspects that researchers are concerned about using polymer materials in the industry is the issue of recycling. The importance of corrosion resistance and generally good resistance to environmental conditions of this material group Arises.
Chairs (foam, cloth and other non-polymeric components), felt, carpet, rubber rug, dashboard, heater, false ceilings, trowels, tire, insulators, washers, adhesives, fasteners, fittings, over-rings, wires, electrical parts, shields and . . . Examples are the application of polymer in the car.
It is estimated that plastics will provide 10% of the weight of new cars, and this is rising. (1) Different parts of the car have the ability to make composites. Including: body (roof frame and pickup room), chassis (connecting bars and front diagonal members), power transmission system (carriage bars and water pump compartment), and internal parts (car jack, steering wheel, window frames and seats ) (2)
What is polymer?
The polymer consists of a combination of the two mer and poly words. The term “poly” is a prefix, meaning “few” and “cease” and “mer” means “torn.” The mono-mer mono-mer is a mono-pit. Polymer or polymer is actually obtained by the addition of a large number of monomers to each other. For example, polyethylene comes from the pooling of a large number of methane molecules. Methane (gas Natural) consists of a carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms and is written in the form of 4CH. However, if a large number of these molecules (about 1800) are sequentially bonded together, a polymeric or large chain The molecule is formed: ~~~~ CH4-CH4-CH4-CHA-CH4- … -CH4 ~~~~
Here, CH4 is a monomer or monomer. That is, the smallest component, with its repeated, polymer chains. A set of these chains generates a polymer called polyethylene which is used in various products, such as various plastic bags. Indeed, the difference between the polymer and other materials is that it consists of large molecules, and other materials, such as water, metals, etc., are composed of molecules and atoms that are separate, that is, the formation of large molecules.
Here is a brief definition of some types of polymers.
Rubber: An important feature of rubber parts is that they are flexible and have elasticity and reversibility. Rubber parts are usually not usable alone. But they are cooking with the addition of sulfur as a result of heat. That is, the sulfur interconnects the chains and brings it into network mode. Crude fiber is actually a plastic. It can be melting or in any form. But it does not melt due to baking or grating, and it resists deformation. The cooked rubber is elastomer. The characteristic of elastomer is that under a relatively low force They can be pulled up to 100% of their initial length without breaking, and returning to the original length with the removal of force.
Plastic (plastic): Plastics can be melted by heat in a variety of shapes. Plastics are divided into two major groups. A bunch of them are thermo plastic, which means they can melt in the heat. Like many polymer containers. The other bundles are the ones that are in the form of a network, such as a power outlet and melamine containers. Tungsten can take many shapes before the final state, but after applying heat and pressure, they can not melt.
Composite (composite) is obtained by combining a polymer component with another component (such as glass fiber), such as fiberglass pieces.
Foam: Foam is called foam when it is made of porous rubber or plastic in a way that is very light (e.g., 5 pounds of water, about 50 Kg / m3).
Adhesive: The polymers can be in such a way that they can interconnect two materials together, either physically or chemically. For example, PVC has the ability to either glue or piecewise Rigid and hard.
Fiber (Fiber): Polymers can be made with a low cross-sectional length, which in this case are called fibers.
An alloy (blend) is obtained from the combination of two or more polymers with each other. Its component with composite is that all components of the polymer are alloys in the alloy, but in the composite the other component can not be polymer, for example, glass fiber. Another fiber In general, the components are separated in the composite and can be seen with the naked eye of both components, but in the alloy components are interconnected in such a way that they can not be separated by the naked eye.
Copolymer: When at least two types of polymers are combined in the same way in which the chains or monomer are bonded together, a copolymer is formed. Polymer is also called homopolymer.